‘Redundant Entry’ requires websites to auto-fill or provide information that’s required more than once in the same process.


When a user is following a multi-step process, they may need help if information is asked for on more than one step of the process.

Requiring users to remember, re-type or replicate information within a process may be difficult for some users due to the cognitive requirements. Users with memory issues or who experience cognitive fatigue will benefit from fields auto-filling with information entered previously.

How to Pass ‘Redundant Entry’

If a process requires information that a user has previously provided to be entered again in the same process:

  • auto-fill the information; or
  • make the information available to select.


  • Where re-entering the information is essential
  • If the re-entering is required for security
  • When information entered previously is no longer valid

‘Redundant Entry’ Tips

A browser’s auto-fill feature is not sufficient.

Your website doesn’t need to retain information between distinct sessions for a user.

Making information available could include auto-filling, providing drop down options or a check box to copy across previous responses.

See Also

‘Consistent Help’ requires that help and support options are presented in the same order.


Offering help options is great for all users, whether the help is human contact or self-service. Users with disabilities may use help options more than other users and will benefit from consistent presentation of their choices.

A simple way to achieve this is adding an email address, phone number or ‘contact us’ link to your main navigation. Others may offer live chat on every page. The key is to keep these options in the same order wherever they exist.

How to Pass
‘Consistent Help’

Where help is offered to users on multiple pages of a website, it is done so in a consistent order. 

‘Consistent Help’ Tips

Help options can include contact details, a contact form, live chat, FAQs or an automated chat bot.

It’s important to note that this doesn’t require websites to offer help, just that when help is offered it is done consistently across all pages.

Consistent order means both placement (for example before or after the main page content) and order within a menu (for example phone number before email).

If you’re going to pick one thing to do, add a ‘Contact’ or ‘Help’ link to your main navigation and present all the help options on that page.

See Also

Motion Actuation requires that functions operated by motion can also be operated through an interface and responding to motion can be disabled.


Where gestures such as pointing or movements like a shaking or tilting control a function, some users will need to be able to control these through a more standard interface. Users with mobility impairments may not be able to make the correct movements (or make them precisely) enough to interact with these types of controls.

Similarly, some users may inadvertently use these controls and therefore need a way to switch them off.

How to Pass ‘Motion Actuation’

  • Ensure users can enable and disable gesture and movement-based controls.
  • Provide a standard interface (such as a button) in addition to motion and gesture controls.


  • Where the motion operates a function through an accessible interface supported by the user’s assistive technology and:
    • The technology is supported widely (such as HTML); or
    • The technology is supported in a widely distributed plug-in; or
    • The content is within a closed environment or network where the user agent required is accessible; or
    • The user agents that support the technology are available at the same cost and as easily to users with and without disabilities. 
  • Where the motion is essential for the function, for example a step counter that uses movement to calculate distance. 

‘Motion Actuation’ Tips

Ignore the exceptions and stick to providing alternate interface and the ability to disable motion controls.

See Also

Understanding Success Criterion 2.5.4 (W3C)

“Label in Name’ requires that where a component has a text label, the name of the component also contains the text displayed.


Some users rely on the programmatic names of components and controls, rather than text that is visually displayed on them. This is especially useful for users relying on assistive technology such as screen readers as the name of the control and the text displayed on it will match.

For speech-input users, mismatched labels and names may present them from effectively interacting with a control as they will need to use a name different to that displayed.

How to Pass ‘Label in Name’

  • Ensure that the text label and programmatic name of components match.
  • Abort actions where the pointer is released outside the boundary of the target.


  • Where there is no visible label for a component. 
  • Where text is used symbolically, for example ‘ABC” used to indicate a spellchecker.

‘Label in Name’ Tips

  • Labels include:
    • Text to the left of dropdown lists and text inputs
    • Text to the right of checkboxes and radio buttons
    • Text inside buttons and tabs
    • Text below icons used as buttons
  • Programmatic names include alt text, aria-label and aria-labelledby attributes.
  • Programmatic names can be simplified versions of the display text if they begin with the same word. For example, ‘Search this page’ could use a name of ‘Search’.
  • When deciding how much text counts as a visual label, take a commonsense approach. The text immediately adjacent to the control will be enough.

See Also

Understanding Success Criterion 2.5.3 (W3C)

Pointer Cancellation requires that functions don’t complete on the down-click of a pointer.


Some users may need extra help using a mouse or prefer to use assistive technology in place of a mouse. It’s important to reduce the chances of an accidental click for these users by ensuring that the down-click of a mouse pointer alone doesn’t complete a function.

How to Pass ‘Pointer Cancellation’

  • Ensure that actions are only taken when a pointer is clicked and released within the boundary of the target.
  • Abort actions where the pointer is released outside the boundary of the target.

Exceptions to ‘Pointer Cancellation’

Where it’s essential the action occurs on the down-click. 

This might seem rare but is relevant to keyboard emulators, where a letter appears typed on the down-press of a key (and therefore the down-press of a mouse in an emulator. A music keyboard or shooting game may also need the action to complete on the down-click. In these instances there are often other ways for users to change an action that don’t need pointer cancellation.

See Also

Understanding Success Criteria 2.5.2 (W3C)

‘Pointer gestures’ requires that multi-point and path-based gestures can be operated with a single pointer.


Some users cannot easily perform gestures in a reliable or precise way, which can make it difficult for them to interact with websites where gestures are required. To overcome this, users might have assistive technology driven by speech or eye movement to make gestures.

Multi-point or path-based movements can be particularly challenging for some users. A multi-point gesture is one where two or more gestures are needed together. For example, a two-finger pinch and zoom or swipe. A path-based movement might be drawing a shape or swiping through a carousel.

How to Pass ‘Pointer Gestures’

Where you have a function that requires a multi-point or path-based gesture, provide a way for a user to operate the same function with a single pointer.

For example:

  • Where a map might use pinch and zoom it can also have + and – controls operated by a single click or tap.
  • A carousel operated by a series of swipes can also have ‘forward’ and ‘back’ buttons


Where a multi-point or path-based gesture is essential for functionality. For example, drawing a signature on a document.

‘Pointer Gestures’ Tips

This goes beyond providing a keyboard accessible control as some users find pointers easier to use than keyboards. A user with an eye movement pointer will often find it easier to point at a control than to switch to a keyboard.

See Also

‘Page Break Navigation’ requires you to provide a way to navigate between page break locators.

Page break locators are a way to guide users through meaningful points within content. For example, an online version of a book might use page markers to match up with a print edition. 

Users with visual impairments or those who rely on digital means to consumer content can use page break locators to find a certain point within the text. For example, if a teacher asks them to read pages 34 – 59 before the next lesson. 

How to Pass ‘Page Break Navigation’

If your content has page break locators, provide users with a way to navigate to and between them:

  • In HTML you can add page list navigation using <nav role=”doc-pagelist”>
  • You could then add designations using <span id=”pg1”>

‘Page Break Navigation’ Tips

This only applies when you have content with page break locators, it’s not a requirement to add these to your content.

See Also

Allow users to turn off or remap single-key character shortcuts. 


Keyboard shortcuts can help some users, but cause difficulty for those using speech input and some users with motor impairments. They can also cause issues on mobile screens as the functional area is reduced on a mobile keyboard.

For speech input users, single-key shortcuts (for example, the letter key “F” for starting a search) are particularly bad as a spoken word can be interpreted as several individual keystrokes. 

The best course of action is to avoid using single-key shortcuts.

How to Pass ‘Character Key Shortcuts’

  • Don’t use single-key shortcuts
  • If you really want to:
    • give users a way to turn off the shortcut;
    • allow users to remap the shortcut to use non-character keys; or
    • ensure the shortcut only works when an element has focus.


  • Shortcuts where one key is not a character (for example ‘alt’ or ‘alt’ + ‘c’)
  • Elements where the shortcut is only active on focus (for example, lists and dropdown menus).

‘Character Key Shortcuts’ Tips

One last time, please just avoid setting up single-key shortcuts.

Characters include letters, numbers, punctuation and symbols – anything you could type into a word processor and print off.

See Also

Keyboard focus is visible when used. 


Where there are multiple elements on a webpage, it helps users to highlight which element has keyboard focus. This helps users who rely on a keyboard to navigate as it shows them which element the keyboard will interact with. Users with attention or short-term memory limitations will also benefit from a visual cue to where focus is located.

How to Pass ‘Focus Visible’

When an element has keyboard focus, show a visual indication.

‘Focus Visible’ Tips

For form fields, you might display a bar within the field or highlight the entire field.

For controls, you might display a border around the control.

See Also

‘Name, Role, Value’ requires that the name and role of user components can be understood by technology.


Users who rely on assistive technology, such as a screen reader or magnifier, rely on their technology being able to correctly understand and interact with the components of your website.

For the most part, using standard controls such as those in HTML enables most technologies to interpret and control your website. However, if you have built custom controls, it’s essential they can still be processed by assistive technology.

How to Pass ‘Name, Role, Value’

  • Ensure every component of your website has a name, role or label (this can be visible or hidden).
  • Where a component has a value (for example a radio button can be selected or unselected), the value can be determined by technology.

‘Name, Role, Value’ Tips

A common value is whether an element has focus or not at a given time, and whether that state has changed.

Elements to pay keen attention to include forms and links.

Remember, standard HTML will almost always pass 4.1.2 – Name, Role, Value without further work.

Be wary of third-party plugins or code and make sure these meet the criteria.

Run your website through a HTML validator to spot any minor coding issues to fix.

See Also