‘Multiple Ways’ requires you to offer at least two ways to find pages on your website.

Introduction

All users benefit from a website that makes it easy to find and navigate to webpages. Some users will find certain methods easier than others, so it’s important to offer a range of options.

For example, users with visual impairments may prefer a search function, whereas those with cognitive impairments may find a sitemap easier to use.

How to Pass ‘Multiple Ways’

Provide multiple ways for users to find your website’s pages by:

  • Adding a sitemap page which links to every page on your website; and
  • Including a search function on every page (by adding it to the header); and
  • Providing a clear and consistent main navigation menu.

Exceptions

  • You don’t need to provide multiple ways to access pages that users only reach after a certain process (for example, a receipt or confirmation page).
  • If your website only has a handful of pages, one clear navigation menu may suffice.

‘Multiple Ways’ Tips

Though you only need at least two methods available to user, the three suggested above make a more comprehensive solution.

A good HTML sitemap will depend on the structure of your website. Design your sitemap so that it best reflects the structure of your website pages and contains all your pages.A ‘related pages’ section (which shows links to similar pages on your website) is a good way of helping users navigate around your website.

See Also

Don’t use images of text.

Introduction

Users with visual or cognitive impairments may rely on changing font size, colour, alignment or spacing to enjoy your content.

Text allows for this kind of personalisation, but images of text almost always don’t.

How to Pass

  • Don’t use an image of text when you can use plain text
  • Display quotes as text rather than images
  • Use CSS to style headings as text
  • Use CSS to style navigation menus as text

Exceptions

  • If using an image of text is essential because you can’t achieve the effect with text (for example, presenting a particular example of typography)
  • If the presentation can’t be achieved with the technology used to build the website
  • If the text is part of an image that contains other visual content, such as labels on a diagram
  • Purely decorative text
  • Brand logos

Tips

Images of text are subject to guidelines on colour contrast – see 1.4.3 – Contrast (Minimum) and 1.4.6 – Contrast (Enhanced).

The exception of the website being built in a technology that doesn’t allow the text to be presented as text is removed in the Guideline 1.4.9 – Images of Text (No Exception) at Level AAA.

See also

Text can be resized to 200% without loss of content or function.

Introduction

Some users with visual impairments need to resize text to understand it fully.

To help these users, your website should allow for up to a 200% resize of text without dropping any content or functions. This should be accomplished in a browser and therefore not require any assistive technology.

How to Pass

Users can resize text content in their web browser up to 200% without loss of meaning or function.

Exceptions

  • Images of text (but don’t use images of text because they don’t resize well)
  • Captions

Tips

As all modern browsers allow for resizing text, a website based on good HTML and CSS should comply.

If your website doesn’t resize correctly to at least 200% in a browser, add a feature that enables users to resize text (by CSS) based on three or four predetermined options, including 200%.

Check your website by resizing to 200% in a variety of browsers.

Make sure your resized text doesn’t require the user to scroll horizontally and you fulfil part of 1.4.8 – Visual Presentation for Level AAA.

See Also

The contrast ratio between text and background is at least 4.5:1.

Introduction

All users benefit from a good contrast between the text on your website and the background colour.

Some users with visual impairments need a stronger contrast than others to understand your content, so using the right colours is essential.

How to Pass

Make sure the contrast ratio between your text and background is at least 4.5:1.

Do this by:

  • Using a light background and dark text; or
  • Using a dark background and light text; and
  • Using a colour contrast checker to verify your choice.

Exceptions

  • Text that is 18 points or larger (or 14 points or larger, if bold) has a lower minimum contract ratio of 3:1
  • Text that is purely decorative
  • Text that is an incidental part of an image (for example, a man who is reading a newspaper or a landscape that happens to include a street sign)
  • Brand logos

Tips

In CSS pixel terms, 14 points is 18.5 pixels and 18 points is 24 pixels.

Picking a contrast of at least 7:1 will also fulfil Guideline 1.4.6 – Contrast (Enhanced) at Level AAA.

Remember to ensure that all colours used conform. This includes links that change colour after being used once, and headings in menus and sidebars, as well as the main content.

Make sure that any embedded charts or images of charts have the minimum contrast between elements (for example, bars, axes and labels).

This guideline also applies to images of text (but you shouldn’t be using images of text, see 1.4.5 – Images of Text).

See Also

Provide audio descriptions for pre-recorded videos.

Introduction

Users with visual impairments or cognitive limitations may rely on audio description to enjoy videos. Adding an audio description soundtrack to videos means these users get all information from the content.

How to Pass

  • Provide an audio described version of a video’s soundtrack, selectable by the user; or
  • Provide an alternative version of your video with audio description.

Exceptions

You don’t need to add audio description if your video conveys all its information through the regular soundtrack. Something like a straight face-to-face interview, or a speech to-camera would probably not need audio description.

Tips

Audio description is an edited version of a video’s soundtrack that adds more information than the regular soundtrack offers during pauses. This might mean narrating movements that are not audibly explained in the video, identifying speakers or explaining visual information. You can provide this to users by letting them select an audio track within the video player or having links to both versions of the video.

Keep this guideline in mind when creating videos to reduce your workload.

If you provided audio descriptions for videos to meet 1.2.3, you’ve already fulfilled this guideline.

This doesn’t apply to live videos or streaming.

See Also

Add captions to live videos.

Introduction

Users with hearing impairments may rely on captions to enjoy your video content. Adding captions to live videos helps people use your website when you’re streaming live video.

How to Pass

Add captions to live video.

Tips

Include presenter cues and important sound effects as well as dialogue.

Depending on the software you’re using to stream, it may have a built-in auto caption option or you may need to link up some 3rd party captioning software.

This is a difficult and potentially expensive guideline to meet. Broadcasters like the BBC hire professional subtitlers to add captions to live television.

See Also