‘No Keyboard Trap’ ensures users can navigate to and from all content using a keyboard.


Users with visual or motor impairments may choose to access your website with only their keyboard. Users must be able to navigate to and away from all content and functionality on your website using a keyboard. 

How to Pass ‘No Keyboard Trap’


No Keyboard Trap (2.1.2 – Level A)Read more

All functionality is accessible by keyboard with no specific timings.


Users with visual or motor impairment may navigate your website using only their keyboard or through assistive technology that relies on a keyboard-like interaction with your website.

How to Pass ‘Keyboard’

Ensure users can access all elements of your website using only a keyboardEnsure there are no specific

Keyboard (2.1.1 – Level A)Read more

Don’t play audio automatically.


Automatically playing sounds can distract and disorientate users, especially those with cognitive impairment or relying on a screen reader.

How to Pass

Don’t have any audio that plays automatically.


Although you can technically pass this guideline by adding a pause, mute or stop function to automatic audio, that’s a bad idea. You don’t want users

1.4.2 – Audio Control (Level A)Read more

Don’t use presentation that relies solely on colour.


Users with visual impairments, including difficulties perceiving colour, may need help where colours on your website present information.

You can solve this by using other identifiers such as labels, shapes and patterns, issue.

How to Pass ‘Use of Colour’

Ensure no instructions rely on colour aloneEnsure that no information (like charts

Use of Colour (1.4.1 – Level A)Read more

Instructions don’t rely solely on sensory characteristics.
“Sensory characteristics” is an important but complicated-sounding phrase in web accessibility. It’s actually far less complicated than it sounds. The sensory characteristics of components are things like shapes, sounds, positioning, orientation, sound, colour and size.

You’ll often come across sensory characteristics in instructions to users. Saying things like “Use the

1.3.3 – Sensory Characteristics (Level A)Read more

Present content in a meaningful order.
The meaning of content on your website relies on the order you present it. For example, in English we read from left to right and read a left-hand column before a right-hand column.
Users who rely on assistive technology (such as a screen reader) to interpret content, require content to be

1.3.2 – Meaningful Sequence (Level A)Read more

Content, structure and relationships can be programmatically determined.
All users benefit when your website structure is logical and each section of content has a clear relationship with the content around it. Visual cues like headings, bullet points, line breaks, tables, bolding, underlining links and other formatting choices help users understand the content.
Assistive technology often relies on

1.3.1 – Info and Relationships (Level A)Read more

Provide audio description or text transcript for videos with sound.

Users who are blind or visually impaired need alternatives for video content.

Adding an audio description track or text transcript helps more users enjoy your content. These both help visually impaired users when the video’s regular soundtrack doesn’t convey all the information – for example, because the

1.2.3 – Audio Description or Media Alternative (Pre-recorded) (Level A)Read more

‘Captions (Pre-recorded) requires captions for videos with audio.


Users with hearing impairments may not be able to perceive the sound on a video. Presenting the video’s content in captions means these users can fully enjoy the content.

How to Pass ‘Captions (Pre-recorded)’

Add captions to all videos with sound.Caption all spoken word.Identify speakers.Caption non-speech information (such as sound

Captions (Pre-recorded) (1.2.2 – Level A)Read more

Provide an alternative to video-only and audio-only content.
Users who have difficulty with hearing and/or vision may need assistance with audio-only or video-only content, such as an audio file, embedded podcast or silent film.
As the popularity of podcasting continues to grow, making these accessible is an important part of a presenters job –  in conjunction with

1.2.1 – Audio-only and Video-only (Pre-recorded) (Level A)Read more