Elements do not change when they receive focus.


All users need predictability when navigating a website. If elements doesn’t act as they expect, they may become disorientated.

In particular, once an element receives focus from a user, whether with a mouse or keyboard, the element must not automatically change (known as ‘changing on focus’). This can disorientate

On Focus (3.2.1 – Level A)Read more

‘Language of Page’ requires that each webpage has a default human language assigned.


For both users who rely on conventional web browsers and those who prefer assistive technologies, assigned a webpage’s language is essential for understanding.

Among the benefits, text is rendered more accurately, screen readers will use the correct pronunciation rules and captions will load correctly.


Language of Page (3.1.1 – Level A)Read more

‘Link Purpose (In Context)’ requires that every link’s purpose is clear from its text or context.


It’s essential that you make your links clear and easy to understand, ideally from just the link text itself.That’s because users with assistive technology, like a screen reader, often hear all the links on a page to help them find

Link Purpose (In Context) (2.4.4 – Level A)Read more

‘Focus Order’ requires that components receive focus in a logical sequence.


Your users need to find their way around your website in a sequential and meaningful order. You can control this with the ‘focus order’ of your website.

This is the sequence in which users access components on your website. Users with keyboard-only navigation or screen readers

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‘Page Titled’ means using helpful and clear… page titles.


All users benefit from descriptive page titles. A good title tells your users which page they are on and what that page is for. This lets users quickly understand if they are on the right page.

Users with visual, cognitive and mobility impairments further benefit as the technology

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‘Bypass Blocks’ requires you to provide a way for users to skip repeated blocks of content.


Websites often have the same, or very similar, content at the top of each page (for example the navigation menu, header and certain graphics). Some users with visual, motor or cognitive impairments who navigate sequentially through elements can struggle to

Bypass Blocks (2.4.1 – Level A)Read more

‘Three flashes or below threshold’ requires that no content flashes more than three times per second.


Flashing content on a website can cause difficulties for users with photosensitive seizure disorders such as epilepsy. Flashing content can cause these users to suffer a seizure.

How to Pass ‘Three Flashes or Below Threshold’

Don’t add anything to your website that

Three Flashes or Below Threshold (2.3.1 – Level A)Read more

Provide user controls to pause, stop and hide moving and auto-updating content.


Moving or auto-updating content on a website can cause difficulties for users with visual or cognitive impairments. These users may not be able to perceive the information before it changes or may be distracted by the movement.

Alongside avoiding moving content, you can help users

Pause, Stop, Hide (2.2.2 – Level A)Read more

‘Timing Adjustable’ requires that you provide user controls to turn off, adjust or extend time limits.


Users with visual, motor or cognitive impairments may need more time than others to understand and use your website. Any time controls or limits can make using your website difficult for these users.

How to Pass ‘Timing Adjustable’

If content on your

Timing Adjustable (2.2.1 – Level A)Read more